Whilst countries such as Norway are aiming for net zero by 2030 stipulating all cars purchased must be electric and all energy must come from renewables giving them wonderful clean unpolluted air and clean water the darker side is the enormous cost to many other countries such as Chile, China and Bolivia who must supply the raw materials to enable the Norwegians to breathe freely. The key components to the batteries, wind turbines, charging infrastructure etc needs massive amounts of copper, lithium, rare earth minerals and many other products that come out of the ground. More copper will be required in the next decade than has been mined in the last century. Rare earth minerals are leading to conflicts which could lead to wars that would create even more dangerous pollution. On every continent there are signs that the constant pressure on growth and change leading inevitably to more desires to purchase new cars, phones, electronic gadgets and so the darker side manifests itself more and more.

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